Quota kind: Legislated Candidate Quotas

Quota kind: Legislated Candidate Quotas

Nation Data

Southern Africa (Republic of Southern Africa) features a Bicameral parliament by using voluntary celebration quotas and legislated quotas in the sub-national level. 184 of 395 (47%) seats within the National Assembly take place by females.

At a look

Framework of Parliament: Bicameral

Is there legislated quotas.

  • When it comes to Single/Lower Home? No
  • When it comes to Upper Home? No
  • When it comes to level that is sub-National? Yes

Are there any voluntary quotas.

  • Adopted by governmental events? Yes

Will there be extra information.

Final updated: Feb 4, 2020

Single/Lower Home

Total seats 395
Total Women 184
percent Females 47%
Election Year 2019
Electoral System List PR
Quota Type No legislated
Election details TIP Voter Turnout – IPU Parline

Quota during the level that is sub-National

  • Quota kind: Legislated Candidate Quotas
Appropriate supply Details
Quota kind: Legislated prospect Quotas Constitution
Electoral legislation within the elections for regional councils, events must look for to make sure that 50% for the prospects from the celebration list are ladies (municipality Act, Schedule 1, Section 11 3; Schedule 2, Sections 5 3 & 17 5).
Appropriate sanctions for non-compliance No None
ranking order/placement rules government that is local In the elections for regional councils, events must look for to ensure men and women prospects are evenly distributed through the prospect list (town Act, Schedule 1, Section 11 3; Schedule 2, Sections 5 3 & 17 5).

Voluntary Political Party Quotas *

Party formal title Details, Quota conditions
African National Congress ANC In 2006 ANC adopted a 50% sex quota in regional elections. The quota had been extended to elections that are national well last year. The celebration statute checks out: 'the supply of the quota of no less than 50 % of females in most elected structures’ (ANC Constitution, Article 6 1). Presently, ANC has won 264 seats when you look at the assembly that is national little significantly less than two-thirds bulk.

* Only political events represented in parliament are included. Each time a country has legislated quotas in position, just political events which have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number regarding the nationwide quota legislation are presented in this dining dining table.

More Information

The Municipal Structures Act 1998 necessary that events “seek to ensure 50% associated with the applicants regarding the celebration list are females, and therefore men and women prospects are evenly distributed though (sic) the list. ” The weakness for this wording is so it encourages, but does not oblige parties to consider a zebra system when it comes to proportional representation seats, and puts no responsibility in it to field ladies prospects within the ward seats. The impact happens to be specially believed in the ANC. ’ (SADC Gender Protocol 2011: 67) last year, ladies constituted 38 percent of most representatives in the neighborhood level (SADC Gender Protocol 2011: 62).

During the nationwide degree, the Africa nationwide Congress (ANC) continues to be the only party which techniques voluntary party quotas, having first set up a 30 percent quota in front of the parliamentary elections in 1994. In 2006, the ANC adopted a 50 sex quota in local elections, and also this ended up being extended to elections that are national 2009. The celebration statute stipulates ‘the supply of the quota of no less than 50% (fifty ) of females in every elected structures’ (ANC Constitution, Article 6 1). Presently, the ANC holds 264 seats within the National Assembly, only a little lower than a two-thirds majority. Although it won’t have explicit conditions for voluntary quotas, the celebration Congress of People (COPE), that has been created in 2008 because of the previous ANC people, ensured that 50 percent of its elected users of Parliament had been females (Gender hyperlinks 2009).

  • African National Congress (ANC) Constitution, as amended and used in the National that is 54th Conference 2017, accessed 15 November 2019;
  • Myakayaka-Manzini, Mavivi, ‘Political Party Quotas in Southern Africa’, in J. Ballington that is(ed) The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Quota Report Series no. 3 (Stockholm: Global TIP, 2003), accessed 24 April 2018;
  • EISA Southern Africa, ‘South Africa: Women’s Representation Quotas’, 2009, accessed 24 April 2018 april;
  • Gender hyper Links, SADC Gender Protocol 2011 Barometer, accessed 04 2014 april

Additional reading

  • Hassim, Shireen. 2003. ‘Representation, Participation and Democratic Effectiveness: Feminist Challenges to Representative Democracy in Southern Africa’, in Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim (eds) No Shortcuts to energy: African ladies in Politics. London: Zed Books.
  • Ballington, J. 2002. ‘Political events, Gender dig this Equality and Elections in Southern Africa’, in Glenda Fick, Sheila Meintjes and Mary Simons (eds), One girl One Vote: The Gender Politics of South African Elections. EISA: Johannesburg.
  • Molokomme 2000. ‘Building Inclusiveness in SADC’s Democratic techniques: the way it is of Women’s Representation in Leadership Positions’, in Report of theSADC Elections Forum, 2001, EISA june.
  • Yoon, M.Y. 2001. ‘Democratization and ladies’ Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa’, in Democratization 8, no. 2. P. 169-190.
  • Kethusegile, B. Et al. 2000. Beyond Inequalities: Feamales In Southern Africa. Harare: SARDC.
  • Khan, F. 2000. ‘Politics-South Africa: Number of Women Candidates Increases’, Interpress Service, December 1.
  • Longwe, S. H. 2000. ‘Towards practical approaches for Women’s Political Empowerment in Africa’, in females and Leadership. Caroline Sweetman (ed.). Oxford: Oxfam. Pp. 24-30.
  • Lowe-Morna, C. 2000. ‘Strategies for improving Women’s Participation in Politics’, paper presented towards the Fifth Meeting of Commonwealth Ministers in charge of ladies’ Affairs.
  • Msimang, S. 2000. ‘Affirmative Action when you look at the brand New Southern Africa: The Politics of Representation, Law and Equity’, ladies in Action, number 1. P. 36.
  • Ballington, J. 1999. The Participation of Women in South Africa’s First Democratic Election: classes Through the Past and tips for the long term. Auckland Park: Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (occasional paper).
  • Ballington, J. 1998. December‘Women’s Parliamentary Representation: The Effects of List PR’, Politikon, Vol. 25, No. 2.
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. 1997. Democracy Nevertheless into the Generating: a global world Comparative Learn. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
  • Mutume, G. 1997. ‘South Africa-Human Rights: Quotas for ladies Under Scrutiny’, Interpress provider, 26 september.
  • Southern Africa Parliament website, http: //www. Parliament.gov.za

Additional reading

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